Background
IMD’s Antarctic Meteorological Programme continues to be an integral part of the Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica since the very first expedition to the icy continent during 1981-82.

Dakshin Gangotri was the first scientific base station of India in Antarctica. It was established during the third Indian expedition in 1983-84. This was the first time Indian team started over wintering in Antarctica to carry out scientific programme. Twelve members from the third expedition team were the first Indians to spend the winter in Dakshin Gangotri. They spent a full year there (from March 1984 to March 1985). Finally Dakshin Gangotri was abandoned in 1990 and it was converted into a supply base.

Maitri was established in 1989. IMD’s Meteorological Programme has been continued at the second Antarctic station at Maitri from 1989-90 (from 9th Expedition) and is continuing till date.

Milestones
During 2nd expedition 1982-83 Surface meteorological observatory was established at Dakshin Gangotri.

During 3rd expedition 1983-84, year round met. observatory was established.

During 4th expedition 1984-85 trial DCP commissioned for down loading INSAT IB data

During 5th expedition 1985-86 DCP was established at DG.

During 6th expedition 1986-87 Vertical & surface ozone measurements indicated presence of ozone hole.

During 7th expedition 1987-88 Dobson photometer was installed for ozone measurements.

During 9th expedition, in Jan 1990 modern permanent met. lab at Maitri was established.

During 12th expedition, Ozone measurement for Maitri contributes to international ROSA project

During 13th expedition, (1993-94) Met. data exchange with other Antarctic stations achieved.

During 14th expedition, Continuous ozone measurements on year-round basis achieved

During 14th expedition, Annual ozone hole mapped on a continuous basis.

During 18th expedtion,(1998-99) Brewer Spectrophotometer observations were started from 20th July 1999 and is used to measure Atmospheric total ozone, Ground reaching UVB radiation, Concentration of SO2, NO2.

Observational program continued upto Jan 1990 at Dakshin Gangotri until this station was decommissioned.

Observational program at Maitri, the second Indian research station at Antarctica started from Jan 1990.

Weather data collection including ozone data, solar radiation data and other data like atmospheric turbidity is going on which will provide important source for environmental reasearch.

Ozone studies at Antarctica are very crucial in the perspective of ozone hole over Antarctica.

IMD ozone studies include surface ozone, Total column ozone and vertical profile of ozone.

Research Activities
• 24 Research papers on Antarctic Meteorology have been published by IMD officers in peer review journals.
• 28 papers were published in technical Reports of Department of Ocean Development, GOI.
• 3 Papers were published in proceedings of international Workshops / conferences.
• 11 papers were published in the proceedings of National seminars & conferences, 11 Papers were reports of DOD.

Objectives Achieved

Participation in ISEA

• 52 IMD scientists have participated in Indian Antarctic Expeditions.
• 41 were part of winter team and 11 members were part of summer team (some members were repeaters).
• IMD has deputed three leaders in the three Indian Antarctic Expeditions (13th, 16th & 21ST Exp.).

IMD Scientists Participated in Antarctic Expeditions

Antarctic Stations Data
Data of Antarctic Stations available at National Data Centre, Pune ; APEC unit, New Delhi and at Maitri, Antarctica.

Dakshin Gangotri
SYNOP Data from 26.2.1985 to 31.1.1990.
Global Radiation Data from 12.1.1984 to 21.12.1989.
RMS Data from 02.03.1988 to 29.10.1990.

Maitri
SYNOP Data from 27.12.1989 to 31.12.2004.
Global Radiation Data from 18.2.1990 to 31.12.2006.
RMS Data from 01.08.1991 to 26.07.2007.